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ASMS History Site: The American Society for Mass Spectrometry has a great site managed by ASMS member/archivist, Michael Grayson.
ASMS History Site
CHF HIstory Site: Also, great information at the Chemical Heritage Foundation site.
CHF History Site
BMSS History Site: A new history site for the British Mass Spectrometry Society site.
BMSS History Site
Historical Documents from My Archives: I found many mass spec artifacts when cleaning out my office in anticipation of retirement in early 2016. My wife warned me their wasn’t unlimited room in our house or on our sailboat for lots of things. Thus, I began to sort through and discard things in my office at Eastman and post ones of general interest on my website.
Finnigan Corporation: A lot of my early career was greatly influenced by GC-MS software (INCOS) and hardware (chemical ionization) from the Finnigan Corporation. Thus, many of the items on this archive page originated from Finnigan.
I was love stricken in my first encounter with our Finnigan 4000 series instrument and my love affair continued with the TSQ, DSQ, and ISQ instruments. But possibly the first love was the best. The Finnigan 4000 was a phenomenal piece of technology, software and hardware, for her time. We routinely ran the instrument 24/7 using automated acquisition and automated data processing for both qualitative and quantitative analyses.
I found several articles about Robert E. Finnigan on the internet that I found interesting inlcuding a short biography and a long interview.
Robert Finnigan short biography
Robert Finnigan long inverview
Finnigan Cookbook, 1979: This is the Finnigan Cookbook given to me by Bill Tindall, a retiree from Eastman Chemical Company. It had the following documentation on the front page:
“Marcie got the recipe and passed it to Mark Weiss of Finnigan-INCOS. Mark Weiss compiled it into his now famous cookbook using what is now considered the first word process software which was written by Joel at INCOS. The cookbook was printed from the Stanford computer Christmas day in 1979, copied at Finnigan during the dark of night and distributed to its contributors who were acknowledged only by their street names. For all that its not a bad recipe.”
I made only a few changes when scanning the document. I did character recognition and added title pages between sections because the handwritten ones could not be scanned.
Finnigan Spectra Vol 6 No 1 (1976): I always enjoyed the early Finnigan Newsletters. This newsletter contained the following very useful article which we utilized the work of Hunt on our Finnigan 4000/4500 in 1979 in the analyses of photographic chemicals for Kodak:
-Selective Reagents for Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry, Don Hunt, University of Virginia
-Application of Gas Chromatography-Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry to the Analysis of Microquantities of Choline and Its Esters, Israel Hanin, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
Finnigan Spectra Vol 2 No 1 1972: Another old Finnigan Newsletter containing articles with articles by M. S. Story and R. E. Finnigan and other things.
–Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry, E. J. Bonelli, M. S. Story
–Analysis of a Kraft Paper Mill Effluent by Electron Impact and Chemical Ionization GC/MS, J. B. Knight, E. J. Bonelli, and R. E. Finnigan
–GC/MS of Chlorinated Dioxins, E. J. Bonelli
–Dateline: Finnigan acquires Quanta/Metrix
Finnigan Spectra Vol 12 No 1, Spring 1989: A collection of early LC-MS articles in a Finnigan magazine.
–Letter to the Reader, Richard M. Caprioli
–Continuous Flow Fab, Richard M. Caprioli
–Capillary Zone Electrophoresis/Mass Spectrometry: An Alternative to LC/MS?, Richard D. Smith, Charles J. Barinaga, and Harold R Udsetb
–Supercritical Fluid Chromatogrpahy/Mass SPectrometry (SFC/MS), D. E. Games, A. J. Berry, S. Y. Hughes, S. Mahatheeranont, I. C. Mylchrest, J. R. Perkins, E. D. Ramsey, and S. Pleasance
–Thermospray LC/MS: Effect of Experimental Parameters on Spectra and Sensitivity, Patrick J. Rudewicz
–Perspectives on the Moving Belt LC/MS Interface, J. van der Greef, W. M. A. Niessen, and U. R. Tjaden
Finnigan Spectra Vol 9 No 1 Spring 1983: Another collection of early LC-MS articles, listed Finnigan thermospray interface. The Thermospray interface is the first useful interface utilized at Eastman Chemical Company. We utilized the Vestec interface on our Finnigan 4000/4500 GC-MS. We tried a moving belt interface on a contract instrument in Boston, but we were not impressed, and thus, never purchased one.
–Introduction, D. E. Games, guest editor
–Combined Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS), D. E. Games
–The Moving Belt as an Interface for HPLC/MS-P. Vouros, B. L. Karger
–First Steps in LC/MS with Simple Interfaces for the Finnigan MAT 44-N. Evans
–Experiments with the Coupling of a Jasco Micro LC to a Finnigan MAT 3300 Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer, A. P. Bruins, B. F. H Drenth
–Thermospray LC/MS: Supplement of Substitute for Existing Techniques, W. H. McFadden
Finnigan Application Report Number AR8020, 1979?: We found negative ion LC-MS to be really useful for Thermospray and later electrospray analyses. We did some negative ion GC-MS, but not as universally useful. Here is an early report on negative ion MS from Finnigan:
Biomedical Applications of Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry, John R. B. Slayback and M. N. Kan, Finnigan Corporation
Finnigan Application Report No 47, 1982?: We did a lot of direct chemical ionization on both our Finnigan 4000/4500, Finnigan 700/7000, and even our Autospec. Worked reasonably well before the days of electrospray. We normally would isolate compounds by preparative TLC or flash chromatography.
DCI-Direct Chemical Ionization or Desorption Chemical Ionization, A Powerful Soft Ionization Technique in Mass Spectrometry, U. Rapp, G. Meyerhoff, and G. Dielmann
Finnigan Technical Report No TR8027: I loved my first GC-MS instrument, a Finnigan 4000 and its associated Data General computer, analytical-digital interface, jet separator, chemical ionization source, oscillope for tuning, library search software, etc. Here is the information needed to optimizie the INCOS data system.
Optimization of Acquisition Parameters for the INCOS Data System, Rhilip L. Warren, John R. B. Slayback, Carl R. Phillips
Finnigan TSQ70-We had a Finnigan TSQ-70 and two SSQ-70’s. We really enjoyed all three instruments doing a lot of chemical ionization work, Vestec thermospray interface, Vestec particle bean interface, fast atom bombardment interface, and direct chemical ionization. Here is a picture that Steve Lammert shared with me recently. It is of the TSQ 70 development team photo ca. 1985.
Direct Liquid Introduction (DLI) LC-MS Interface, 1984: Jack Henion came to our lab to install the DLI interface. He was a consultant for Kodak in Rochester. Many people referred to it as “Pray and Spray” because always plugging. Here is some documentation and data I retained even the parts listing for the various laser drilled holes. We only used a very short time before transitioning to the Thermospray interface.
Vestec Particle Beam Interface Brochure: We used this for several years in both EI and CI modes on our Finnigan TSQ-700. It actually worked well, but the sensitivity was very poor compared to current electrospray interfaces. Nevertheless, one could get good EI spectra for library searching and addition to our computer searchable Eastman Corporate Database.
Additional Particle Beam Information: I have included some additional data on the Vestec interface, the Hewlett-Packard demo, the Extrel Thermabeam interface, and the Particle Beam/FAB interface custom-built by Marvin Vestal for our VG-70 MS, etc.
Kodak Laboratory Chemicals Bulletin Vol 55, No 3, 1984: When I was in graduate school in the late 70’s, we ordered specialty chemicals from Kodak. They supplied many in that era, but nothing to compare to the large list of chemicals from Aldrich. Here is a bulleting talking about “The Chemistry of the Diketene-Acetone Adduct” by Robert J. Clemens, CAS No. 5394-63-8, 2,2,6-trimethyl-4H-1,3-dioxin-4-one.
MS9 Design Lectures, AEI, Associated Electrical Industries Limited: I think we had a MS9 in the Kodak Rochester laboratories. We did have a CEC 21-110B mass spectroemeter in Research at Eastman Chemical. We used the instrument at Eastman to characterize TLC fractions, prepared samples, and even components trapped off a GC/TCD system. Thus the beginnings of GC-MS!
Finnigan 1015 GC-MS: We had one of these systems at Eastman. Bob Finnigan would always ask me about it every year when I attended ASMS in the mid 80’s. The picture below was from the Heritage article written by David C. Brock. I think I would have remembered that lady if she had worked in our lab..
INCOS 50: We had one of these systems. It always looked to me as if someone had made the manifold for the system produced from a “glass sewer pipe.” Probably the best part of the instrument was the INCOS library search software:
S. Sokolow, J. Karnofsky, P. Gustafson, The Finnigan Library Search Program, Finnigan Application Report 2, San Jose, CA (1978).
A good friend of mine supplied me a copy of the report.
Here is a link to an ACS advertisement for the instrument featuring Bob Finnigan.
British Mass Spectrometry History: One of my wife’s British relatives, Winifred Hall, was a early scientist in mass spectrometry at Shell. When we went to visit her, she introduced me to several people in the mass spectrometry industry including Robert Craig. Robert was an early founder of VG.
This was actually before my career in mass spectrometrist at Eastman Kodak. At the time, I was attending the University of Georgia as a graduate student in chemistry, but our school did not have a working mass spectrometer. It had been “hit” by lightening and no one knew how to repair the beast!
I found a lot of history of the British mass spectrometry community on the British Mass Spectrometry website that is very interesting.
Mike Morris – 50 years of British MS
BMSS 50th poster by ASMS
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